Who does not know the dunes, those accumulations of sand in the interior areas of some beaches?
These are formed mainly by the transport of sand by the action of the wind, which also determines its shape and arrangement. Did you know that they are stabilized and maintained thanks to the vegetation? In the north of Formentera and on the islet of s’Espalmador, all the known types of dunes can be distinguished, depending on their location and age.
The first line of sand is formed by the embryonic dune, the youngest, with little vegetation and easily destroyed by the wind during storms. Next is the primary, or mobile dune, with short bushes on most of its surface. Subsequently, the secondary dunes, more sheltered from the wind, are stable and have a greater variety of vegetation.. The tertiary dune is completely covered with bushes (in the area closest to the sea) and forest (in the most anterior part). Finally, the fossil dunes are the oldest, with consolidated and hardened sand, as well as sedimentary deposits that are a reflection of the remains of the existing fauna. They are the ideal dunes to obtain information on the climate of past times.
As you can see, the dunes are very complex and sensitive spaces, whose balance can be very easily destabilized. Unfortunately, they have suffered greatly from human action, which has significantly modified them. Understanding the environmental value of the dunes is essential for carrying out rehabilitation and conservation actions that prevent these spaces from being degraded.
Do we continue to take care of them?